- James Woodhouse founded Chemical Society of Philadelphia,
first such society in world.
July 19, 1802
- Eleuthre Irne du
Pont (E.I.) broke ground for first gun powder mills
on Brandywine River;
paid $6,740 to Jacob Broom, Wilmington, DE
businessman, for site;
1802-1880 - manufactured black powder.
November 27, 1826 - John Walker, an English
pharmacist from Stockton-on-Tees, invented the first
practical, strike-anywhere, friction match (refused to
patent his creation); used three-inch splints of wood,
tipped with potassium chlorate, antimony sulphide, and gum
arabic; head was ignited by drawing it through a fold of
fine glasspaper; 1829 - similar matches called
"Lucifers" were sold throughout London (difference was added
sulphur, to aid combustion, and white phosphorus); early
twentieth century - Phosphorus sesquisulphide replaced the
deadly white phosphorus in the strike-anywhere match.
October 24, 1836
- Alonzo Dwight Phillips, of Springfield, MA, received patent
for the "Manufacture of Friction-Matches"; first genuine
phosphorous friction safety match made in America (could be
struck on any rough surface); made entirely by hand from a
mixture of chalk, phosphorus, glue and brimstone (sulphur),
known as "loco focos," and later as "lucifers" (gas for lighting
and cooking, spread of cigar smoking); 1860's
- about a million matches a day were being manufactured;
1827 - first friction matches (mixture of chemicals for
their heads) were made and sold in England.
December 5, 1846
- Christian Frederick Schönbein of Basle, Switzerland, received
U.S. Patent for "Improvement in Preparation of Cotton-Wool and
Other Substances as Substitutes for Gunpowder"; 1891
- James Dewar and Frederick Abel incorporated nitrocellulose in
a mixture that could be handled more safely, replaced gunpower
on battlefield (where it had been used for five centuries),
until World War II; useful for blasting because it generated
about six times the gas of an equal volume of gunpowder,
produced less smoke, heat.
June 12, 1849 -
Lewis P. Haslett, of Louisville, KY, received a patent for a
"Lung Protector" (forerunner of gas mask); first U.S. patent
issued for an air purifying respirator.
July 2, 1850 -
Benjamin I. Lane, of Cambridge, MA, received patent for a
"Respiring Apparatus" (called "Lane's Pneumatic
Life-Preserver..."to enter buildings and vessels filled with
smoke or impure air and into sewers, mines, wells, and other
places filled with noxious gases or impure air, the person being
protected from suffocation arising from such causes");
self-contained breathing apparatus (gas mask) with compressed
air supply (vs. filtering surrounding air).
1851 - George
Crompton, M. A. Furbush launched successful loom making business
in Worcester, MA (based on his father’s patent which William
Crompton had received on November 14, 1837 for a "Figure
Power-Loom", "improvements in figure or fancy power-looms");
November 14, 1854
- received a patent for a "Loom" ("Loom for Weaving Ornamental
Figured Fabrics"; added 60% to operating capacity of loom,
reduced amount of labor needed to run it by half;
1856 - Lucius J.
Knowles, F. B. Knowles (brother) established LJ & FB Knowles in
Worcester, MA to manufacture, sell looms for every kind of
textile fabric; 1859
- partner retired, George Crompton established Crompton Loom
Works; January 21, 1873
- Lucius Knowles received a patent for "Looms" (open-shed fancy
cassimere loom); 1897
- merged; formed Crompton & Knowles Loom Works; dominated market
for fancy looms in America, woolen looms in world through
mid-twentieth century; 1900
- incorporated; 1954
- expanded into dye, chemical business; 1956 - renamed Crompton
& Knowles Corporation; 1981
- discontinued loom manufacturing;
1996 - acquired Uniroyal Chemical
Corporation for $1.4 billion;
September 1, 1999 - merged with Witco
Corporation (founded 1920) in deal valued at $2.26 billion;
renamed form CK Witco Corporation; major force in world market
for additives, polymers, processing equipment, specialty
chemicals ($3.2 billion in annual revenues);
2000 - renamed
- Crompton & Knowles
March 27, 1855 -
Abraham Gesner, of Williamsburg, NY, received patent for an
"Improvement in Processes for Making Kerosene"; first patent for
process to obtain oil for illumination from bituminous shale and
1857 - William Henry Perkin (18), of King David
Fort, Middlesex, UK, received a British patent for "Producing a
New Coloring Matter for Dyeing with a Lilac or Purple Color
Stuffs of Silk, Cotton, Wool or Other Materials"); first aniline
dye, mauveine (aniline purple), first synthetic organic dye);
had tried to synthesize quinine, anti-malaria drug.
1860 - Solomon
Rose established Rose Rat Exterminator Company in Cincinnati,
Ohio; sold large quantities of pyrethrum powders to Union Army
during Civil War to kill "cooties" (body lice);
1867 - formulated
phosphorous paste for cockroach, rodent control; developed spray
gun, powder duster, Rose's Rat Embalmer, colored arsenate
trioxide; sold products at retail, by mail order, peddled door
to door from cart; 1955
- expanded, opened office in Grand Rapids, MI;
1971 - formed
Bio-Serv Corporation as umbrella company for acquired service
companies; established distributing division to supply pest
control chemicals, equipment to pest control professionals;
February 1, 2004 -
name changed to Rose Pest Solutions; nation's oldest pest
1863 - Joseph
Wilbrand, German chemist, discovered trinitrotoluene (TNT);
unaffected by ordinary shocks and jarring, must be set off by a
detonator, does not react with metals; 1891 - manufacture of TNT
started in Germany.
January 4, 1863 -
Eugen Lucius, Wilhelm Meister, August Muller founded Chemische
Fabrik Meister Lucius & Co. in Hoechst am Main, Germany (near
Frankfurt; obtained permit to operate aniline, aniline-dye
factory in 1862); 1867
- name changed to Meister Lucius & Bruning;
1881 - went public
became a stock company, Farbwerke vorm. Meister Lucius & Bruning
AG (known internationally as Farbwerke Hoechst AG);
1892 - began
production of immunological drugs;
December 1925 - incorporated into IG
1945 - Allied Forces dissolved I.G.
Farbenindustrie AG, Hoechst plant put under US control from 1945
to 1951; December 7, 1951
- Farbwerke Hoechst AG reestablished in Frankfurt;
1987 - acquired
Celanese, formed new subsidiary in the US, Hoechst Celanese;
1999 - merged with
Rhone-Poulenc S.A., formed Aventis SA;
2004 - acquired by Sanofi-Synthelabo.
February 10, 1863
- Alanson Crane, of Fortress Monroe, VA, , received patent for
an "Improvement in Fire-Extinguishers".
October 14, 1863 -
Alfred Nobel received his first patent, Swedish patent for
preparation of nitroglycerin (called "blasting oil"); 1868 -
Nobel patented dynamite as form for safer handling.
April 6, 1865 -
Friedrich Engelhorn, owner of coal gas company in Mannheim,
founded BASF as Badische Anilin- & Soda-Fabrik AG [BASF] to
produce coal tar dyes and precursors; 30 employees;
manufacturing facilities built on opposite side of Rhine River
in Ludwigshafen (part of kingdom of Bavaria);
1869 - Heinrich
Caro synthesized first natural dye (prepared by Carl Graebe,
Carl Lieberman), Alizarin; red dye derived from root of madder
plant, mainly used to dye cotton), first global success story;
1876 - Caro
synthesized pure blue dye for cotton - methylene blue;
1877 - received
Germany's first patent for coal tar dye for methylene blue; 1888
- largest sulfuric acid producer in world at this time;
January 1890 -
established patent office (later became patent department);
successfully launched synthetic "pure indigo from BASF" (after
17 years of research at cost of 18 million gold marks); won race
to manufacture "king" of natural dyes;
January 1, 1900 - 6,207 employees;
1913 - started
world's first ammonia synthesis plant, began production of
mineral fertilizer; became supplier of agricultural products,
moved into high-pressure technology (new area of chemistry);
1923 - successful
synthesis of methanol (Matthias Pier);
December 1925 - merged with five other
companies (including Hoechst , Bayer), formed IG Farbenindustrie
July 14, 1867
- Alfred Nobel demonstrated dynamite for first time at quarry in
Redhill, Surrey, England - combination of nitroglycerin, porous
substance called kieselguhr = highly explosive mixture that was
much safer to handle, use; christened "dynamite" (Greek word
dynamis, meaning "power");
November 26, 1868 - Nobel, of Hamburg, Germany
received a U. S. patent for an "Improved Explosive Compound";
dynamite; had invented, in 1863, way to control detonation of
nitroglycerin, highly volatile liquid that had been recently
discovered but was previously regarded as too dangerous for use;
1865 - invented blasting cap, improved detonator that
inaugurated the modern use of high explosives;
1887 - introduced
ballistite, smokeless nitroglycerin powder.
- invented dynamite
October 1867 -
Edward, Otto, Gustav Mallinckrodt (formerly of Richardson & Co.,
wholesale druggists) began G. Mallinckrodt & Co. in St. Louis,
MO to manufacture fine chemicals for pharmaceutical products;
June 1887 - Edward
Mallinckrodt took over (brothers died);
1882 - incorporated as Mallinckrodt
Chemical Works; 1890
- chief producer of anhydrous ammonia;
1898 - began producing opium-based
medicinal narcotics for pharmacists;
1913 - entered medical imaging business;
1928 - Edward, Jr.
took over; 1930s -
produced medicinal narcotics;
December 2, 1942 - first self-sustaining nuclear
chain reaction took place beneath west stands of University of
Chicago's Stagg Athletic Field using Monsanto-produced uranium
(Manhattan Project); 1954
- went public; 1982
- acquired Avon Products; sales of $494 million;
1986 - Avon
acquired by International Minerals and Chemical Corporation;
became global manufacturer, distributor of specialty medical
products (industry leader in respiratory care products, number
one manufacturer of bulk narcotics and other drug chemicals,
world's largest producer of acetaminophen);
1999 - revenue of
$2.6 billion; 2000
- acquired by Tyco International for $3.24 billion (business
unit of Tyco Healthcare, leader in bulk analgesic
pharmaceuticals, respiratory care business);
June 29, 2007 -
spun off as public company, focused solely on health care, known
Edward Mallinckrodt, Jr.
- Mallinckrodt Group
June 15, 1869 -
John W. Hyatt, Jr., of Albany, NY, and Isaiah S. Hyatt, of
Rockford, IL, received a patent for an "Improved Method of
Making Solid Collodion" ("very small quantity of ether or other
appropriate solvent, and dissolving pyroxyline therewith, under
a heavy pressure, so that a comparatively hard and solid product
is obtained, with great economy of solvents and saving of
time"); July 12, 1870
- received patent for "Improvement in Treating and Molding
Pyroxyline" ("Improved Process of Dissolving Pyroxyline and
Making Solid Collodion") - used heat, pressure on compound with
base of cellulose nitrate; founded Albany Dental Plate Company
to make dental impressions (vs. rubber);
1872 - renamed Celluloid Manufacturing
Company; opened way for development of the modern plastics
industry; January 14, 1873
- registered "Celluloid" trademark; first synthetic plastic;
used for production of photographic film, other applications; April
16, 1878 - John W. Hyatt, of Newark, NJ,
received a patent for "Coating Articles with Celluloid etc.";
assigned to Celluloid Manufacturing Company.
John W. Hyatt, Jr.
October 25, 1870
- Averill Chemical Paint Company (New York City) registered
first U.S. trademark.
March 16, 1871
- Delaware enacted first US state fertilizer law;
April 8, 1881 - law amended; amended several more times.
April 20, 1876
Society, first national chemical society in U.S., organized in
New York City;
November 9, 1877 - chartered; first U.S. national
society for chemists; for "the advancement of chemistry and the
promotion of chemical research".
- John Jeyes received a patent for a disinfectant fluid (Jeyes
Fluid); first truly effective disinfectant (version of
saponified coal tar made by Ferdinand Le Boeuf, pharmacist from
Bayonne; used soap made from pine tree resin, rather than
original saponin; dissolved rosin soap to a clear solution in
tar oils or creosote, formed black disinfectant fluid);
1879 - established
Jeyes Sanitary Products; 1896
- granted Royal Warrant (stillsupplies Royal Household);
1964 - formed
Jeyes Group; 1998 - acquired by IWP (Household Products
Division); 2002 -
Jeyes Group sales of €300 million.
- Jeyes Fluid
27, 1879 - US chemists Ira Remsen, Constantine Fahlberg
announced discovery of saccharin.
- Lammot du Pont, Solomon Turck (president of Laflin & Rand
since 1873) formed Hercules Powder Company with explosives plant
in Cleveland, OH; 1902
- DuPont acquired Laflin & Rand; produced more than two-thirds
of nation's black powder and dynamite, all of its military
smokeless powder; October 19, 1912
- Hercules Powder Company incorporated as manufacturer of
explosives as result of court-ordered breakup of DuPont's
"Powder Trust" activities; 1919
- sales of $20.5 million, more than 99% from single line of
business: commercial explosives (gunpowder, smokeless powder,
blasting powder, dynamite); July
11, 1929 - listed on NYSE;
1939 - sales over $41 million, six
operating units, more than 200 products (explosives, variety of
cellulosic and rosin-based compounds, paper chemicals,
insecticides, synthetic resins);
1968 - name changed to Hercules Inc.;
July 11, 2008 -
Ashland Inc., nation's largest chemical distributor, agreed to
buy Hercules for $3.3 billion to double earnings, add additives
used in adhesives, paper, paints.
- W. H. Lawrence, Brush Electric Company executive, founded
National Carbon Company (synthetic carbon industry); 1896
- marketed first carbon-zinc battery battery for consumer use
('The Columbia," six inches tall, used to power home
telephones); first commercially available battery sold in the
U.S.; 1914 - acquired American Ever Ready,
manufactured batteries, lighting products; 1917 -
merged with Union Carbide, formed The Union Carbide and Carbon
November 15, 1887
- Dr. Carl Gassner, Jr., of Mentz, Germany, received U. S.
patent for a "Galvanic Battery"; first "dry" cell, used zinc as
its primary ingredient (like the carbon-zinc, general-purpose
batteries available today); 1896
- National Carbide Company (later Union Carbide and Eveready),
produced first consumer dry cell battery;
1898 - made first D cell.
1890 - Herbert H.
Dow, former college chemistry student at Case School of Applied
Science (Cleveland, OH), established Midland Chemical Company in
Midland, MI; January 4, 1891
- produced bromine from Midland, Michigan's rich brine resources
(main component of patent medicines at that time) by
electrolysis; led to an increasing stream of chemicals from
brines; September 28, 1891
- received a patent for a "Process of Extracting Bromine from
Natural Brine or Bitter Waters"; "blowing-out" process to
liberate bromine from brine; became world's most efficient
bromine manufacturer through application of electrochemistry;
May 18, 1897 - The
Dow Chemical Company incorporated, based on Dow's plan to
manufacture, sell bleach on commercial scale;
1898 - first
commercial scale production of bleach begins; Dow-in-diamond
mark created to resolve product shipping problems.
Ontario-born inventor Thomas L. (Leopold) Wilson (32), Major
James T. Morehead accidentally produced calcium carbide at North
Carolina-based Wilson Aluminum Company while trying either to
make aluminum in an electric furnace; 1894 - formed Electro-Gas
Company to further develop calcium carbide product, created
first ferrochrome for armor plating; June 18, 1895 - Wilson
received a patent for a "Calcium-Carbide Process" ("improved
process of producing calcium carbide");
1897 - John Motley Morehead III (son)
became associated with American Calcium Carbide Interest to
built plants for calcium carbide gas producing process;
1898 - Electro-Gas
Company acquired by Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company; Morehead
III organized Union Carbide Company in Virginia to manufacture
calcium carbide for acetylene lighting.
John Motley Morehead III
- Union Carbide
Motley Morehead III.jpg)
1901 - John F.
Queeny, purchasing agent for a drug company, formed Monsanto
Chemical Works (wife's name was Olga Monsanto Queeny) in
warehouse near St. Louis, MO waterfront; began producing
saccharine (only available in Germany at that time);
1928 - Edgar
Monsanto Queeny (son) took over; broadened business into
plastics, resins, rubber goods, fuel additives, artificial
caffeine, industrial fluids, vinyl siding, dishwasher detergent,
anti-freeze, fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides;
July 24, 1934 -
registered "Monsanto" trademark first used in 1901 (chemicals);
1960 - created
agricultural division; 1970s
- entered biotechnology market;
1982 - first to genetically modify plant cell;
late to improve crop productivity;
1997 - spun off chemical, fibers
operations into new company called Solutia, became life sciences
company; 2000 -
merged with Pharmacia/Upjohn, renamed Pharmacia Corporation;
re-incorporated, declared itself an agricultural company.
John F. Queeny
1902 - Dutch
government formed nationalized coal company 'De Nederlandse
Staatsmijnen' (Dutch State Mines), later became DSM; mining,
coal-processing operations grew; coke oven gas byproduct
converted into ammonia (ingredient in nitrogenous fertilizers);
1919 - became
profitable commodity, Emma coke plant start of chemical
activities (closed in 1945); 1930
- produced first fertilizer; 1969
- reorganized into six divisions;
1970 - chemicals, fertilizers comprised
company's chief activity (67% of sales); diversified into
- Dutch Prime Minister closed country's last mine;
1982 - profits
from raw materials for plastics grew 14 times;
major reorganizations to ensure sufficient scale, greater
guarantees for market consumption, diversification into
high-quality plastics, fine chemicals;
1985 - developed series of ambitious
innovation projects, specialties such as polyethylene fiber
Dyneema (strongest fiber on earth);
1989 - went public; acquired Copolymer
Rubber & Chemical Corporation in US;
1990s -created balance between commerce
and research, developed value-adding processes and products
(pharmaceutical, food industries), performance materials for
automotive, transport industry and electrics, electronics
sector; 2002 -
'Royal' title awarded; renamed Royal DSM N.V.;
October 2003 -
acquired Roche's Vitamins & Fine Chemicals Division;
February 2005 -
acquired NeoResins, coating resins business of Avecia;
July 2007 -
acquired Pentapharm Holding Ltd., (manufactured active
ingredients, system solutions for cosmetics industry, present in
niche pharmaceutical, diagnostics markets).
May 12, 1903 -
Carl von Linde, of Munich, Germany, received two patents for a
"Process of Producing Low Temperatures, the Liquefaction of
Gases, and the Separation of the Constituents of Gaseous
Mixtures"; received second patent for same;
1907 - established
Linde Air Products Company in Cleveland;
November 1, 1917 - acquired by Union
Carbide and Carbon Corp. (continued to operate under old company
July 7, 1903
- Eppa H. Ryon, of Waltham, MA, and Charles N. Waite, of
Landsdowne, PA, received a patent for an "Apparatus for
Producing Artificial-Silk Filaments" ("fibers of filaments are
formed from solutions of cellulose or other material...machine
of this character which will produce a thread or filament of a
uniform size regardless of the viscosity of the cellulose
solution"); assigned to General Artificial Silk Company;
May 10, 1904 -
Charles N. Waite received a patent for the "Manufacture of
Filaments of Flms from Viscose" ("especially valuable in the
manufacture of the filaments commercially known as "artificial
silk"); assigned to General Artificial Silk Company; acquired by
American Viscose Company, Marcus Hook, PA;
1910 - American Viscose Company first
commercially produced rayon; 1911
- 362,000 pounds produced; 1924
- term rayon adopted.
- Swiss brothers Camille and Henri Dreyfus developed first
commercial process to manufacture cellulose acetate (had begun
chemical research in shed behind their father's house in 1904);
1910 - used commercially to make films, toilet
articles, molded articles; opened factory in Basle (center of
the dyestuffs industry), sold products to celluloid industry in
France and Germany, motion picture companies;
December 28, 1912 - joined with Alexander
Clavel-Respinger, set up "Cellonit Gesellschaft Dreyfus & Co."
in Basle, Switzerland for production of fireproof celluloid out
of cellulose acetate; 1916 - British Cellulose &
Chemical Manufacturing Co. established (low cost producer of
acetic acid anhydride); name changed in 1918 to British Celanese
Limited; 1918 - Camille Dreyfus founded The
American Cellulose & Chemical Manufacturing Company (Amcelle);
1921 - developed dry spinning technique that
allowed fiber to be knit, woven for apparel; began commercial
production of acetate yarn; January 8, 1924 -
British Cellulose & Chemical Manufacturing Co. registered
"Celanese" trademark first used in 1922 (threads made wholly or
principally from cellulose derivatives; combination of
"cellulose" and "ease); 1927 - Amcelle name
changed to Celanese Corporation of America; 1930 -
went public; 1945-1960 - Celanese fibers company's
most important product line; 1987 - acquired by
Hoechst AG for $2.85 billion, formed Hoechst Celanese
Corporation; July 1, 1997 - Hoechst AG became
Strategic Management Holding company; October 25, 1999
– Celanese AG spun-off as publicly traded corporation;
October 1, 2004 - acquired by Blackstone Capital
Partners; November 2004 - name changed to Celanese
Corp.; January 2005 – went public; summer
2005 - focused on core chemicals, technical polymer
Dr. Camille Dreyfus, Dr. Henry
September 1, 1909 - Otto Haas established U.S. branch office in Philadelphia
to sell Oropon, leather bate to tanners (had established
Chemist Otto Röhm in 1907 in Esslingen, Germany); 1915 - Rohm
received German patent for polyacrylic ester as paint binder;
April 24, 1917 - Rohm and Haas incorporated; sales
about $1 million; 1924 - Haas, Karl Albert Company
established Resin Products Company to market synthetic resins
for fast-drying varnishes; introduced Lethane, synthetic organic
insecticide, first product developed in its own laboratories;
1935 - acrylic chemistry - developed
small-molecule chemistries, acrylic products; introduced cast
polymethyl methacrylate, plexiglas (optical clarity, light
weight, shatter resistant, ability to withstand heat);
1940-1949 - sales multiplied nine times; 1953
- introduced acrylic emulsions for use as paint binders; birth
of latex paints, waterborne textiles, non-woven finishes;
March 27, 1956 - registered "Plexiglas" trademark first
used June 5, 1935 (plastic sheets, both colored and uncolored,
fir interior and exterior constructional purposes); 1960
- Fritz Otto (son) became CEO; 1962 - introduced
zinc, magnesium agricultural fungicide; 1970 -
Haas family direct control ended (otto's retirement); 1982
- entered electronic chemicals market, acquired 30% interest in
Shipley Company (photoresists used in etching chips,
microcircuits; acquired full control in 1992); 1990s
methacrylate franchise (commodity, non-specialty chemical); 1997
- acquired minority interest in Rodell Inc. (chemical slurries,
polishing pads); 1999 - acquired LeaRonal Inc.
(specialty chemical additives in electronic, metal finishing);
merged with Morton International; world's largest
specialty-chemical company ($6.5 billion in sales, leader in
adhesives, specialty coatings, electronic materials, salt); 2006
- annual sales of $8.2 billion;
July 10, 2008 - agreed to be
acquired by Dow Chemical,
U.S. chemicals company (sales of $54 billion) for $18.8 billion
in deal part funded by Warren Buffett, Kuwait sovereign wealth
fund (at 74% premium to Rohm and Haas’s closing share price on
September 14, 1909 - Leo H. Baekeland, of
Yonkers, NY, registered "Bakelite" trademark first used June 30,
1907 (condensation products of phenol and formaldehyde);
December 7, 1909 - received patent for for a "Method of
Making Insoluble products of Phenol and Formaldehyde"
("production of hard, insoluble and infusible condensation
products of phenols and formaldehyde"); received two patents for
"Condensation Product and Method of Making Same" ("some
industrial applications in the manufacture of varnishes,
resinous products and plastic compounds"); thermosetting
artificial plastic; called Bakelite (nonflammable material that
was cheaper , more versatile than other known plastics),
commonly referred to as the "heat and pressure" patent); gave
birth to modern plastics industry; 1910 -
founded General Bakelite Corporation, later Bakelite Company;
1939 - merged with Union Carbide Corporation.
Leo H. Baekeland
transformed phenol and formaldehyde into a moldable
substance called "Bakelite" - "the material of a
thousand uses" (i. e plastic) (http://img.timeinc.net/time/
3, 1910 - Neon lighting, developed by French physicist
Georges Claude as practical alternative to incandescent
lighting, made public debut at Paris Motor Show; coating inside
of glass tube with combinations of gasses, phosphors can
achieve more than 150 colors; December 11, 1910 -
displayed first neon lamp to public; 1923 - Earle
C. Anthony bought two signs (which read "Packard") for $2400 in
Paris, installed them in his Los Angeles Packard dealership.
October 13, 1914
- Garrett A. Morgan, of Cleveland, OH, received patent for a
"Breathing Device" ("portable attachment which will enable a
fireman to enter a house filled with thick, suffocating gases
and smoke and to breathe freely for some time therein"); gas
mask, a breathing device consisting of a canvas hood placed over
the head; a double tube extended from the hood and merged into a
single tube at the back; the open end held a sponge soaked with
water to filter out smoke and to cool incoming air; July
25, 1916 - Morgan rescued several men trapped during an
explosion in an underground tunnel beneath Lake Erie; Morgan gas
mask was later refined for use by U.S. Army during World War I.
November 1, 1917
- Union Carbide & Carbon Corporation incorporated acquired stock
of: Linde Air Products Co., National Carbon Co., Inc., Prest-O-Lite
Co., Inc., Union Carbide Company (formed in 1898); 1920
- built first commercial ethylene plant at Clendenin, WV;
1957 - name changed to
Carbide Corporation; December 3,
1984 - more than 4,000
people Bhopal, India (360 miles south of New Delhi) died after
more than 40 tons of highly
poisonous methyl isocyanate gas leaked in 40-minute period from
one of three underground tanks at a pesticide plant owned by
Union Carbide; February 6, 2001 - acquired
by The Dow Chemical Company in $11.6 billion transaction.
1921 - Friedrich Karl Bergius, German chemist,
invented distillation process to convert coal dust, hydrogen
directly into gasoline and lubricating oils without isolating
intermediate products; transformed more carbon from coal into
oils than is possible with conventional distillation; invented
treating mixture of pulverized coal in oil with gas under high
pressure (solved heat distribution, temperature regulation
- Hermann Schmitz merged Badische Anilin, Bayer, Agfa, Hoechst,
Weiler-ter-Meer, Griesheim-Elektron into Inter-nationale
Gesellschaft Farbenindustrie A.G.( I. G. Farben); made Zyklon-B
gas used in Nazi death camps; in liquidation since 1952;
2003 - dissolved.
December 7, 1926
- Alkali company Brunner, Mond, Nobel Industries (major
explosives manufacturer established in 1870 by Alfred Nobel),
United Alkali and British Dyestuffs merged, incorporated
Imperial Chemical Industries PLC with 33,000 employees;
principal products - chemicals, explosives and accessories,
fertilizers, insecticides, dyestuffs, non-ferrous metals,
paints; 1927 - sales of £27 million, pre-tax
profit of £4.5 million.
April 1930 -
Dr. Wallace H. Carothers,
research chemist for Du Pont,
synthetic rubber, synthesized first polyester superpolymer,
February 16, 1937
received patent for "Linear
Condensation Polymers" ("relates to the production of fibres
from synthetic materials");
nylon (assigned to the E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. Inc.);
covered synthetic linear condensation polymers capable of being
drawn into strong pliable fibers, as well as the process for
making them; October 27, 1938 - Du Pont announced
name for new synthetic fiber yarn: nylon (name derived from New
York-London); February 24, 1938 - began production
of nylon bristle filament in tooth brushes ("Miracle Tuft
Toothbrush") to replace bristles of neck hairs from wild swine
from Siberia, Poland, China; one of first consumer uses -
dramatic reduction in production costs, ability to control
bristle texture; early nylon bristles very stiff, hurt gums;
1950 - produced softer nylon bristles;
December 15, 1939 - began commercial production of yarn
for nylon hosiery.
Wallace Carothers -
Inventor of Nylon
November 2, 1931
- DuPont company announced first synthetic rubber, known as
DuPrene (renamed neoprene); expensive, but resisted oil and
gasoline (unlike natural rubber).
March 27, 1933
- ICI scientists Reginald Gibson and Eric William Fawcett
discovered polyethylene by accident while reacting ethylene and
benzaldehyde at high pressure; one of the earliest plastics to
come into common use; demands of war and the need for a better
insulator for cables stimulated the development of polyethylene,
played a key role in the development of radar.
May 24, 1934
- Du Pont drew sample of synthetic fiber remarkably like silk,
nylon; February 28, 1935 - nylon 6,6, Du Pont's
must celebrated product first prepared during process of trying
all 81 possible variants of nylon; experience with cellulose
based products, Rayon and acetate, vital to rapid
commercialization of nylon.
May 21, 1936
- Du Pont began commercial production of Lucite;
September 14, 1937- registered
"Lucite" trademark first used February 4, 1937 (thermoplastic
synthetic resin material, known as methyl methacrylate, in the
form of sheets, rods, and tubes and in powdered or granular
form); crystal clear, highly non-conducting, low moisture
absorbing. Other manufacturers in world use other names,
including Perspex and Plexiglass.
April 6, 1938
- Roy J. Plunkett, of E. I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co.,
discovered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) resin; solid lubricant
in powdered form, chemically inert, very high melting point,
formed by an unexpected polymerization -- Teflon.
October 27, 1938
- Charles Stine, vice president of E. I. du Pont de Nemours,
Inc., announced invention of nylon;
1939 - Du Pont opened full-scale nylon
plant in Seaford, DE; production site became "The Nylon Capital
of the World"; October 24, 1939
- first public sale of nylons at Braunstein's department store
in Wilmington, DE; December 15, 1939
- Nylon yarn sold to hosiery mills to make women's stockings;
first use of commercial yarn (made by Du Pont) for apparel;
May 1940 - record number of ladies' hose went on sale
for first time; production of $9 million sold out, at 33%
profit; 1941 - profit of $7 million on sales of
$25 million; made nylon for over 60 million pairs of sheer
women's hosiery, more than number of women in United States at
January 21, 1941
began commercial production of magnesium (extracted from
seawater through electrolytic process) at Freeport, Texas
plant; 1916 - Herbert H. Dow first extracted metal
from brine in Midland, MI (lightweight metal became critical
alloy for airplanes; U.S. military aircraft production
escalated, as much as 2,000 pounds of magnesium needed per
1941 - Roy J. Plunkett, of Wilmington, DE,
received a patent for "Tetrafluoroethylene Polymers";
January 8, 1946 -
E.I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company registered "Teflon"
trademark first used October 9, 1944 (synthetic resinous
fluorine-containing polymers in the form of molding and
extruding compositions, fabricated shapes-namely, sheets, [rods]
tubes, tape and filaments [-solutions,] and emulsions);
1954 - first used
for frying pans.
June 6, 1942 -
Adeline Gray, parachute rigger at Pioneer Parachute Company,
made first parachute jump in U.S. using nylon parachute; jumped
from aircraft flying from Brainard Field, Hartford, CT;
convinced audience of 50 critical army, navy observers.
October 28, 1948 -
Swiss chemist Paul H. Muller awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry
for discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT.
1950 - Du Pont
pilot plant at Seaford, DE produced Dacron [polyester] "fiber
with modified nylon technology."
October 10, 1950
- Dow Chemical Company registered "Styrofoam" trademark first
used September 11, 1945 (irregular solid masses of multicellular
extended synthetic resinous material [and granular masses of the
same material comminuted]).
1951 - J. Paul Hogan and Robert L.
Banks, research chemists working for Phillips Petroleum Company,
discovered polymer polypropylene unexpectedly during experiments
with catalysts while trying to convert natural gas components
ethylene, propylene into compounds useful for gasoline; first
commercially successful use of new material was in Hula Hoop.
30, 1952 - BASF reestablished as one of three successor
companies of IG Farben; 1968 - acquired acquires
Nordmark-Werke GmbH (Hamburg), entry into pharmaceutical
industry; expanded to pharmaceutical active ingredients, fine
chemicals, hospital supplies, hygiene products; 1973
- name changed to BASF Aktiengesellschaft; March 2001
- pharmaceuticals business sold to Abbot Laboratories; acquired
vitamins business of Takeda Chemical Industries Ltd., Japan,
became world's second largest producer of vitamins; 2002
- global market leader in acrylic acid, acrylic acid
derivatives; January 2005 - acquired worldwide
electronics chemicals business from Merck KgaA, Germany, became
leading supplier of electronics chemicals for rapidly growing
semiconductor, flat screen industries; June 2006 -
acquired Engelhard Corporation, biggest takeover in BASF's
corporate history, became worldwide leading supplier in
catalytic converter market; took over worldwide construction
chemicals business from Degussa AG, Germany; acquired resins
specialist Johnson Polymer.
February 12, 1952
- E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company registered "Dacron"
trademark first used March 16, 1951 (synthetic polyester fibers
for generalized use in the industrial arts); first commercially
marketed polyester fiber.
May 8, 1952 -
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Company opened first large coal
hydrogenation chemicals plant in U.S. in Institute, WV; designed
for converting coal into chemicals; $11 million plant processed
up to 300 tons of coal a day; coal pulverized, mixed with oil to
form paste, converted with heat and pressure to combine with
hydrogen gas to form liquid chemical intermediate products
(cresols, higher phenols, naphthalene, aromatic hydrocarbons).
June 10, 1952
- E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company registered 'Mylar'
trademark first used on June 21, 1951 (polyester film);
extraordinarily strong polyester (PET) film that grew out of the
development of Dacron in the early 1950s (used in consumer
markets for magnetic audio and video tape, capacitor
dielectrics, packaging and batteries).
- Yung-Ching Wang (tea farmer's son, named Taiwan's "God of
Management" by Taiwan politicians and news media) founded
Formosa Plastics Corporation; 1957
- produced 4 MT/day of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin, smallest
PVC plant in world at that time;
1958 - established Nan Ya Plastics Corporation
to produce secondary products such as PVC pipes, PVC film,
plastic leather; New Eastern Corporation formed to help consume
Nan Ya's products by making tertiary products (handbags,
luggage, shoes, curtains, raincoats, blow-molded toys, for
export market); solved problem of slow sales of PVC resins;
enormous tertiary processing industry created; led to prosperous
development of local petrochemical industry, contributed
significantly to economic development of Taiwan;
1965 - diversified
into textile industry; 1984
- began investing in manufacturing of printed circuit boards,
copper-clad laminates; largest private enterprise in Taiwan.
January 1, 1958
- Wilbert L. (Bill) and Genevieve (Vieve) Gore started W. L.
Gore & Associates in basement of their home in Newark, DE;
initially served electronic products market;
1969 - Bob Gore
(son) discovered remarkably versatile new polymer (expanded
polytetrafluoroethylene, or ePTFE); led to entry into medical,
fabric, industrial markets;
October 24, 1972 - registered "Gore-Tex"
trademark first used May 28, 1970 (yarn and thread for
conversion as by weaving into fabric materials); March 18, 1980
- received a patent for a "Waterproof Laminate" ("...waterproof
layered article in sheet form that possesses a high moisture
vapor transmission rate even under adverse climatic
conditions...suitable for rainwear garments and tents");
2007 - 8,000
employees, more than 45 plants and sales locations worldwide,
sales of $2 billion.
Bill and Vieve Gore
- W. L. Gore & Associates
1958 - The Boston Herald printed letter from
Olga Owens Huckins attacking DDT pesticide as dangerous (friend
of Rachel Carson, author of "Silent Spring", an early call for
modern environmentalism (asked important questions about
balancing industrial and agricultural needs, progress,
protection of the environment, quality of life).
September 6, 1958
- First U.S. interstate pipeline for transport of ethylene
placed in service between Lake Charles, Louisiana and Orange,
Texas; ran 30 miles, provided ethylene to E.I. duPont de Nemours
& Company at Orange for manufacture of synthetic rubber.
August 27, 1963
- E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company registered "Corfam"
trademark first used August 15, 1962 (poromeric material-i.e.
microporous and permeable coriaceous sheet material for
genearlized use in the industrial arts); carbon-based, synthetic
substitute for leather; January
27, 1964 - introduced Corfam for uses with
shoes, handbags, belts, suitcases; company predicted that 25% of
America's shoes would be made of Corfam by 1984;
1971 - production
ceased; synthetic leather snubbed by customers despite one of
best-prepared products in terms of market, technology
development; described as "Du Pont's $100-Million Edsel"
(Leonard Sloane, New York Times, April 11, 1971).
1964 - E.I. duPont de Nemours Co. introduced
Corfam (hydrocarbon-based, synthetic substitute for leather);
DuPont predicted that by 1984, 25% of America's shoes would be
made of Corfam. But synthetic leather was snubbed by customers
in droves; one of best-prepared products in terms of market,
technology development and yet it failed; time on market:
seven years; 1971
- production ceased; Corfam was described by Leonard Sloane in
New York Times as, "Du Pont's $100-Million Edsel."
1965 - Stephanie
Kwolek and Herbert Blades, Du Pont research chemists, created
KEVLAR, manmade organic fiber which provided enhanced strength,
light weight and flexibility.
October 18, 1969 - Federal government
banned artificial sweeteners known as cyclamates (non-caloric
sweetener discovered in 1937 and widely used as tabletop
sweetener, in sugar-free beverages, in baked goods and other
low-calorie foods, particularly in combination with sacchari)
because of evidence they cause cancer in laboratory rats (one
experiment showed bladder tumors in laboratory rats fed large
doses of cyclamate); June 1985
- new experiments by National Academy of Sciences indicated that
cyclamates were not carcinogenic by itself; approved for use in
more than 50 countries.
December 31, 1972 - Executive order of
Environmental Protection Agency banned insecticide DDT.]
May 15, 1973 - Nathanial Convers Wyeth, of
Mendenhall, PA, and Ronald Newman Roseveare, of Wilmington, DE,
received a patent for a "Biaxially Oriented Poly(ethylene
terephthalate) Bottle" ("hollow, biaxially oriented
thermoplastic article, such as a bottle, particularly useful in
bottling liquids under pressure, i.e. carbonated beverages or
aerosols, etc."); PET beverage bottle; first plastic strong
enough to hold highly pressurized carbonated beverages without
bursting, safe enough to secure FDA approval; assigned to E. I
du Pont de Nemours Company.
January 29, 1978
- Sweden banned aerosol sprays because of damage to environment,
the first country to do so.
July 6, 1981
- Dupont announced plans to merge with Houston-based oil and
energy company, Conoco Inc. in a deal valued between $6.5
and $7 billion (single biggest merger in U.S. corporate history
at the time); 1998 - Dupont unveiled plans to
gradually divest itself of Conoco via offerings to the public
and its shareholders alike.
May 15, 1995
Dow Corning Corp. filed for Chapter 11
bankruptcy protection, cited potentially astronomical expenses
from liability lawsuits.
November 15, 1999
- Evergreen Nylon Recycling facility began operation in Augusta,
GA; Honeywell Intl Inc. developed, patented process
to produce caprolactam with same quality as virgin caprolactam
without using petroleum; kept carpet out of U.S. landfills;
August 29, 2001 - plant closed because of
January 6, 2009
- Lyondellbasell Industries (created in 2007 when Basell
acquired Lyondell) applied in U.S. District Court to place its
U.S. operations, holding company in Germany under Chapter 11
bankruptcy protection; $26 billion in debt, nearly 13 times
company's operating earnings; largest ever bankruptcy in
chemical industry; other bankruptcy filings in chemical industry
(Solutia, Dow Corning, W.R. Grace) were smaller, acted primarily
because of environmental liabilities.
(Air Products), Andrew J. Butrica (1990).
Out of Thin Air: A History of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.,
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(Albright and Wilson Ltd.), Richard E.
Threlfall (1951). The Story of 100 Years of Phosphorus
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research in three major identity shifts of Dutch chemical
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maintain, improve existing businesses; industry, identity,
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A History of the Dow Chemical Physics Lab: The Freedom To Be
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Journalist who joined Dow in 1953 and later served as director
of public relations. Dow, Herbert Henry, 1866-1930; Dow Chemical
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Chemical industry--United States--History.
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Accounting for Growth: Information Systems and the Creation of
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Chairman of the Board: A Biography of Carl A. Gerstacker.
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Make It in America: The Case for Re-Inventing the Economy.
(Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, p.). Chairman and CEO. Industrial policy
--United States; Manufactures --United States; Economic
forecasting --United States; United States --Economic conditions
--2009-. America’s future economic growth, prosperity depend on
the strength of its manufacturing sector; how manufacturing
sector creates economic value at scale unmatched by any other,
is to creating jobs inside, outside factory; how other nations
are building manufacturing sectors to stay competitive in global
economy; how America has failed to keep up; agenda to get back
on track to lead world.
(Dow Corning), Dorothy Langdon Yates (1985).
William R. Collings: Dow Corning's Pioneer Leader.
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Forty Years of Firsts: The Recollections of a Dow Corning
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The History of the E. I. Du Pont de Nemours Powder Company; A
Century of Success. (New York, NY: Business America, 224
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Eleuthere Irenee Du Pont
Pierre S. Du Pont
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Du Pont, The Autobiography of an American Enterprise: The Story
of E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Company, Published in Commemoration
of the 150th Anniversary of the Founding of the Company on July
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The du Ponts: From Gunpowder to Nylon. (Boston, MA:
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(Du Pont), Alfred D. Chandler,
Jr. and Stephen Salsbury, with the assistance of Adeline Cook
Pierre S. Du Pont and the Making of the Modern Corporation.
(New York, NY: Harper & Row, 722 p.). DuPont, Pierre Samuel,
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The Company State: Ralph Nader's Study Group Report on DuPont in
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Politics and government.
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Du Pont: Behind the Nylon Curtain. (Englewood Cliffs,
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Du Pont and the International Chemical Industry (Boston,
MA: Twayne, 251 p.). E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company--History;
Chemical industry--United States--History; Chemical
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Lammot Du Pont and the American Explosives Industry, 1850-1884.
(Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 332 p.). Du
Pont, Lammot, 1831-1884; E.I. du Pont de Nemours &
Company--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography;
Chemical industry--United States--History--19th century;
Explosives industry--United States--History--19th century.
(Du Pont), David A. Hounshell, John Kenly
Smith, Jr. (1988).
Science and Corporate Strategy: Du Pont R&D, 1902-1980.
(New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 756 p.). E.I. du Pont
de Nemours & Company--History; Chemical industry--United
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(Du Pont), William P. Bebbington (1990).
History of Du Pont at the Savannah River Plant. (Wilmington,
DE, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., 271 p.). E.I. du
Pont de Nemours & Company --History; Savannah River Plant (E.I.
du Pont de Nemours & Company) --History; Nuclear weapons
industry --United States --History; Nuclear weapons plants
--South Carolina --History.
(Du Pont), Robert F. Burk (1990).
The Corporate State and the Broker State: The Du Ponts and
American National Politics, 1925-1940. (Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press, 359 p.). Du Pont family; Business and
politics--United States--History--20th century; United
States--Politics and government--20th century.
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Alfred I. du Pont The Man and His Family. (New York, NY:
Oxford University Press, 685 p.). DuPont, Alfred I. (Alfred
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Strictly Business: Walter Carpenter at Du Pont and General
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309 p.). Carpenter, Walter Samuel, 1888-1976; E.I. du Pont de
Nemours & Company--History; General Motors Corporation--History;
Executives--United States--Biography; Chemical industry--United
States--Management--History; Automobile industry and
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Enough for One Lifetime: Wallace Carothers, Inventor of Nylon.
(Washington, DC: American Chemical Society and the Chemical
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Du Nylon et des Bombes: du Pont de Nemours, le Marché et l'Etat
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industry--United States--History; Research, Industrial--United
States--History; Military-industrial complex--United
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DuPont: From the Banks of the Brandywine to Miracles of Science.
(Wilmington, DE: E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., 268 p.).
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Chemical industry--United States--History; International
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Nylon and Bombs: Dupont and the March of Modern America.
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States--History; Research, Industrial--United States--History;
Military-industrial complex--United States--History.
Lives and careers of Du Pont's
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Routledge, 171 p.). Research Fellow in the Department of
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boom generation -- History. Development of specific fabric,
insights into U.S. corporate history, changing image of women in
America, how seemingly doomed product came to occupy a position
never imagined by its inventors, contained in wardrobe of
virtually every American; relationship between technology,
science, society over past half century.
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From Exxon to Engro. (Oxford, UK: Oxford University
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Giacco, Alexander F.; Hercules Incorporated; Chief executive
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Farben, Formeln, Forscher: Hoechst und die Geschichte der
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Salt & Water, Power & People; A Short History of Hooker
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IG Farben. (New York, NY: Boni & Gaer, 312 p.).
Interessengemeinschaft Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft.
co-founder, I. G. Farben
Hermann Schmitz (right)
- IG Farben chairman of managing board (1935)
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Divide and Prosper: The Heirs of I.G. Farben Under Allied
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(IG Farben), Peter Hayes (2001).
Industry and Ideology: IG Farben in the Nazi Era.
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Aktiengesellschaft--Political activity--History--20th century;
Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter-Partei--History;
Chemical industry--Political aspects--Germany--History--20th
century; Mineral industries--Political
aspects--Germany--History--20th century; World War, 1939-1945;
Germany--Politics and government--1933-1945.
(IG Farben), Kim Coleman (2006).
IG Farben and ICI, 1925-53: Strategies for Growth and Survival.
(New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 288 p.). Lecturer in Modern
European History (University of Essex). Interessengemeinschaft
Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft--History; Imperial Chemical
Industries, ltd.--History; Chemical
industry--Germany--History--20th century; Chemical
industry--Great Britain--History--20th century.
Comparative analysis of
strategies for world market domination, survival (during,
after Second World War).
(IG Farben), Janis Schmelzer (2006).
G Farben, vom "Rat der Götter": Aufstieg und Fall.
(Stuttgart, Germany: Schmetterling, 199 p.). Chemical industry
-- Germany -- History -- 20th century; Chemical industry --
Political aspects -- Germany -- History -- 20th century;
Interessengemeinschaft Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft;
Interessengemeinschaft Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft --
Political activity -- History -- 20th century; Chemicals
industry politics Weimar Republic Third Reich war economy 20th
century Germany; Chemische Industrie Politik Weimarer Republik
Drittes Reich Kriegswirtschaft 20. Jahrhundert Deutschland.
(IG Farben), Thomas Hager (2008).
The Alchemy of Air: A Jewish Genius, a Doomed Tycoon, and the
Discovery that Changed the Course of History. (New York,
NY: Harmony Books, 384 p.). Haber, Fritz, 1868-1934; Bosch,
Carl, 1874-1940; Chemists --Germany --Biography; Nitrogen
fertilizers --History --20th century; Technological innovations
--History --20th century. German chemists, Nobel laureates Fritz
Haber, Carl Bosch discovered economical mass synthesis of
ammonia from nitrogen, hydrogen; often called most important
invention of 20th century; saved world, lost everything via
unforeseen results of discovery; Bosch, former managing director
of Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik [BASF] Company proposed all
I.G companies merge; created I.G. Farbenindustrie
Aktiengesellschaft — I.G. Farben on December 9, 1925.
(IG Farben), Diarmuid Jeffreys (2008).
Hell’s Cartel: IG Farben and the Making of Hitler’s War Machine.
(New York, NY: Metropolitan Books, 496 p.).
Aktiengesellschaft--History; Nationalsozialistische Deutsche
Arbeiter-Partei; Industrial policy--Germany--History--20th
century; Forced labor--Germany--History--20th century;
Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945); World War, 1939-1945--Atrocities.
Rise, fall of IG Farben, from nineteenth-century origins (discovery of synthetic
dyes) through upheavals of Great War era, to company’s fateful
role in World War II; codependence of industry, Third Reich;
infamous connections to Nazi Party, complicity in atrocities of
(IG Farben), Stephan H. Lindner; English
translation by Helen Schoop (2008).
Inside IG Farben: Hoechst During the Third Reich. (New
York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 388 p.). Professor of
Interdependence of Technological and Social Change (University
of the Bundeswehr in Munich). Interessengemeinschaft
Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft --History; Hoechst AG
--History; World War, 1939-1945 --Atrocities; Chemical industry
--Political aspects --Germany --History --20th century.
1925 - IG Farben formed; became
synonymous with participation of German industry in most heinous
crimes of Nazi regime; relationship between management,
employees, Nazi party, its organizations; exclusion, persecution
of employees, particularly Jewish employees; extent of Hoechst's
involvement in exploitation of forced labor, active
participation in human experiments in several concentration
camps; motivations of those responsible for this conduct.
(Imperial Chemical), W.J. Reader (1970).
Imperial Chemical Industries: A History. (London, UK:
Oxford University Press, 2 vols.). Imperial Chemical Industries,
ltd.; Chemical industry--Great Britain. v. 1. The forerunners,
1870-1926.--v. 2. The first quarter century, 1926-1952.
(Imperial Chemical), Ian M. Clarke (1985).
The Spatial Organisation of Multinational Corporations.
(London, UK: Croom Helm, 287 p.). Imperial Chemical Industries,
ltd.; International business enterprises; Industrial management;
(Imperial Chemical), Andrew M. Pettigrew
The Awakening Giant: Continuity and Change in Imperial Chemical
Industries. (New York, NY: Blackwell, 542 p.). Imperial
Chemical Industries, ltd.--History--20th century; Chemical
industry--Great Britain--History--20th century.
(Imperial Chemical), Patrick Brodie (1990).
Crescent over Cathay: China and ICI, 1898 to 1956. (New
York, NY: Oxford University Press, 294 p.). Imperial Chemical
Industries, ltd--History; Chemical industry--China--History.
(Imperial Chemical), John Harvey-Jones (1991).
Getting It Together. (London, UK: Heinemann, 378 p.).
Harvey-Jones, John, 1924- ; Imperial Chemical Industries,
ltd.--History; Businesspeople--Great Britain--Biography;
(Imperial Chemical), Carol Kennedy (1993).
ICI: The Company That Changed Our Lives. (London, UK: P.
Chapman, 223 p. [2nd ed.]). Imperial Chemical Industries, ltd.
-- History; Chemical industry -- Great Britain -- History.
(Interlab Inc.), Howard M. Layton (2000).
The Thirteen Club: A Journey from Riches to Rags and Back.
(Brookfield, CT: Three Spires Publishing. Layton, Howard;
Interlab Inc.; Wet-chemistry processing.
(International Minerals and Chemical
Corporation), Joseph Sander (1975).
Hunger Can’t Wait. (Libertyville, IL: International
Minerals & Chemical Corp., 178 p.). International Minerals and
Chemical Corporation; Food supply--Congresses--History;
Agriculture--Congresses--History. Story of the world food
production conferences sponsored by the International Minerals
and Chemical Corporation.
(M. W. Kellogg), Robert H. Multhaup and
Gunther P. Eschenbrenner (1996).
Technology's Harvest: Feeding a Growing World Population.
(Houston, TX: Gulf Pub. Co., 321 p.). M.W. Kellogg Company;
Fertilizer industry--United States; Chemical industry--United
States--History; Chemical engineering--United States--History.
(Koppers Company), Ferdinand C. Latrobe
Iron Men and Their Dogs. (Baltimore, MD: I. R. Drechsler,
225 p.). Koppers Company (1927- ) Bartlett Hayward Division.
(Marchon Products), Alan W. Routledge (2005).
Marchon: The Whitehaven Chemical Works. (Stroud,
Gloucestershire, UK: Tempus, 128 p.). Leader of InFocus
Photographic Society. Marchon Products Ltd. -- History; Chemical
industry -- England -- Whitehaven -- History.
(May & Baker), Judy Slinn (1984). A History
of May & Baker, 1834-1984. (Cambridge: Hobsons, 196 p.).
Chemical Industry-Great Britain, May & Baker-History.
(Monsanto), Dan J. Forrestal (1977).
Faith, Hope, and $5,000: The Story of Monsanto: The Trials and
Triumphs of the First 75 Years (New York, NY: Simon &
Schuster, 285 p.). Monsanto Company--History.
Edgar M. Queeny -
(Montedison S.p.A.), a cura di Franco Amatori
e Bruno Bezza (1990). Montecatini, 1888-1966: Capitoli di
Storia di Una Grande Impresa. (Bologna, Italy: Societa
Editrice Il Mulino, 480 p.). Professor of Economic History (Bocconi
University, Milan). Montedison Group--History; Società
Montecatini--History; Chemical industry--Italy--History;
Fertilizer industry--Italy--History; Conglomerate
corporations--Italy--History; Big business--Italy--History.
(Morrells Woodfinishes - founded 1902 as F. T.
Morrell & Company), Christopher Mulvey (1994).
Frank Thomas Morrell: Edwardian Entrepreneur.
(Winchester, UK: Estcourt Press, 181 p.). Professor of English
and American Studies and Director of the Electronic Text
Institute (University College Winchester). Morrell, Frank
Thomas, 1860-1949; Morrill family;
(Perstorp AB), Alf Akerman (1981).
Making Money From Smoke: Perstorp AB 1881-1981. (Perstorp,
Sweden: The Company, p). Perstorp AB;
chemicals -- specialty.
(Phillips Plastics), Bill Beck (1994).
The People Process: A Manufacturing Story. (Phillips,
WI: Phillips Plastics Corp., 133 p.). Phillips Plastics
Corporation--History; Plastics industry and trade--United
(Polymer Corporation), Matthew J. Bellamy
Profiting the Crown: Canada's Polymer Corporation, 1942-1990.
(Montreal, QU: McGill-Queen's University Press, 296 p.).
Lecturer in Economics and History (Carleton University).
(Reckitt and Sons), Basil Norman Reckitt
The History of Reckitt and Sons, Limited. (London, UK:
A. Brown, 113 p.). Reckitt and Sons. Main products were Starch,
Blue, Grate Polish and Metal Polish including Brasso.
(Reilly Industries), Bill Beck; edited by Kim
Good Chemistry: The Story of P.C. Reilly and Reilly Industries.
(Indianapolis, IN: Reilly Industries, 216 p.). Reilly, Peter
Celestine, 1869-1952; Reilly Industries, Inc.--History;
Industrialists--United States--Biography; Chemical
industry--United States--History; Organic
compounds--Synthesis--United States--History; Coal-tar
(Rhone-Poulenc S.A.), Marcel Peyrenet (1978).
La Dynastie des Gillet: Les Maîtres de Rhône-Poulenc.
(Paris, FR: Le Sycomore, 198 p.). Gillett family;
(Rhone-Poulenc S.A.), Jean Domenichino;
préface par Henri Morsel (1994). De la Chimie et des Hommes:
Histoire d'une Entreprise, Rhône-Poulenc, Pont-de-Claix.
(Grenoble, FR: Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, 163 p.).
Rhône-Poulenc (Firm); Chemical industry--France--Isère--History;
(Rhone-Poulenc S.A.), Stéphane Pineau ;
préface de Bertrand Louvet (1994). Les Usines de Melle: Un
Siècle de Chimie, des Pionniers à la Multinationale.
(Mougon, FR: Geste Editions, 152 p.). Rhône-Poulenc
(Firm)--History; Industries--France--Melle--History; Chemical
industry--France--Melle--History; Melle (France)--Economic
(Rohm and Haas), Willard S. Randall and
Stephen D. Solomon (1977).
Building 6: The Tragedy at Bridesburg. (Boston, MA:
Little, Brown, 317 p.). Rohm and Haas Company; Dichloromethyl
ether--Physiological effect; Lungs--Cancer--Pennsylvania--Bridesburg;
Dr. Otto Rohm
(Rohm and Haas), Sheldon Hochheiser (1986).
Rohm and Haas: History of a Chemical Company.
(Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 231 p.).
Rohm and Haas Company--History; Chemical industry--United
(Rohm and Haas), Regina Lee Blaszczy (2009).
Rohm & Haas: Innovation Through Collaboration.
(Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 184 p.).
Visiting scholar in the Department of the History and Sociology
of Science (University of Pennsylvania). Rohm and Haas
Company--History; Chemical industry--United States--History.
history of Philadelphia-based chemical company; long stressed
importance of connecting with customer; how company developed
commitment to customer service, grew from family firm with
transatlantic connections into one of world's leading specialty
chemical companies; from founding, interactions with different
types of customers facilitated innovation, generated
products that improved everyday life, led to global growth.
(Skilbeck Brothers Ltd.), Donovan Dawe (1950).
Skilbecks: Drysalters, 1650-1950. (London, UK: Skilbeck
Bros., 116 p.). Skilbeck Brothers, ltd., London.
(Storey Brothers and Company), Guy Christie
Storeys of Lancaster, 1848-1964. (London, UK: Collins,
256 p.). Storey Brothers and Company.
(Union Carbide), Larry Everest (1986).
Behind the Poison Cloud: Union Carbide's Bhopal Massacre.
(Chicago, IL: Banner Press, 192 p.). Union Carbide Ltd. (India);
Union Carbide Corporation; Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster,
Bhopal, India, 1984; Industrial toxicology--India--Bhopal;
Pesticides industry--Accidents--India--Bhopal; Methyl isocyanate--Environmental
(Union Carbide - merged into Dow Chemical
Company in 2001), Dan Kurzman (1987).
A Killing Wind: Inside Union Carbide and the Bhopal Catastrophe.
(New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 297 p.). Union Carbide Ltd. (India);
Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984;
Pesticides industry--Accidents--India--Bhopal; Methyl
(Union Carbide), David Dembo, Ward Morehouse,
and Lucinda Wykle (1990).
Abuse of Power: Social Performance of Multinational
Corporations: The Case of Union Carbide. (New York, NY:
New Horizons Press, 161 p.). Union Carbide Corporation; Chemical
industry--Environmental aspects--Case studies; International
business enterprises--Social aspects--Case studies.
(Union Carbide), Dominique Lapierre, Javier
Moro ; translated form the French by Kathryn Spink (2002).
Five Past Midnight in Bhopal: The Epic Story of the World's
Deadliest Industrial Disaster. (New York, NY: Warner
Books, 403 p.). Union Carbide Ltd. (India); Bhopal Union Carbide
Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984; Pesticides
(Witco Chemical), Alan S. Brown (1995).
The Witco Story: Hard Work and Integrity. (Lyme, CT:
Greenwich Pub. Group, 107 p.). Witco Chemical
Corporation--History; Chemical industry--United States--History.
(Ziegler Chemical & Mineral Corp.), Gordon
Sterling Ziegler, Sr. as told to Suzanne Barnett (1992).
"--And So It Happened--". (Fort Lauderdale, FL:
Abbott-Sterling Pub., 286 p.). Ziegler, Gordon Sterling;
Alfred D. Chandler, Jr. (2005).
Shaping the Industrial Century: The Remarkable Story of the
Modern Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industries.
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 384 p.). Isidor Straus
Professor of Business History, Emeritus (Harvard Business
School). Chemical industry--United States--History; Chemical
industry--Europe--History; Pharmaceutical industry--United
States--History; Pharmaceutical industry--Europe--History;
Biotechnology industries--United States.
J. Harry DuBois (1972).
Plastics History U.S.A. (Boston, MA: Cahners Books, 447
p.). Plastics industry and trade--United States--History.
Kenne Fant; translated from the Swedish by
Marianne Ruth (1993).
Alfred Nobel: A Biography. (New York, NY: Arcade, 342
p.). Nobel, Alfred Bernhard, 1833-1896; Chemical
Stephen Fenichell (1996).
Plastic: The Making of a Synthetic Century. (New York,
NY: HarperBusiness, 356 p.). Plastics.
Susan Freinkel. (2011).
Plastic: A Toxic Love Story. (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Harcourt, 336 p.). Plastics. As much plastic produced in
past decade as in entire 20th century; impact of plastic; 8
familiar plastic objects: comb, chair, Frisbee, IV bag,
disposable lighter, grocery bag, soda bottle, credit card;
factories in China for Frisbees (women work 60-hour weeks for
$175 a month), preemie wards (lifesaving vinyl tubes that
deliver food and oxygen to premature babies may cause altered
thyroid function, allergies, liver problem); new creative
partnership with material.
Robert Friedel (1983).
Pioneer Plastic: The Making and Selling of Celluloid.
(Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 153 p.). Historian
(University of Maryland). Celluloid.
Eds. Louis Galambos, Takashi Hikino, Vera
The Global Chemical Industry in the Age of the Petrochemical
Revolution. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press,
529 p.). Professor of History (Johns Hopkins University);
Associate Professor of Industrial Organization (Kyoto
University); Professor of Economic History (University of
Bologna). Chemical industry; Petroleum chemicals industry.
Evolution of global
chemical industry from end of World War II until most recent
L. F. Haber (1971). The Chemical Industry,
1900-1930: International Growth and Technological Change.
(Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 452 p.). Chemical
William Haynes (1942).
This Chemical Age; The Miracle of Man-Made Materials.
(New York, NY: Knopf, 385 p.). Chemistry, Technical -- History;
Chemical Pioneers; The Founders of the American Chemical
Industry. (Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 288
p.). Chemists; Chemical engineers; Chemical industry -- United
Eds. Ernst Homburg, Anthony S. Travis, and
Harm G. Schroter (1998).
Chemical Industry in Europe, 1850-1914: Industrial Growth,
Pollution, and Professionalization. (Boston, MA:: Kluwer
Academic, 344 p.). Chemical industry --Europe --History;
Chemical industry --Environmental aspects --Europe --History.
Development of chemical industry during Second Industrial
Revolution in large number of European countries; importance of
environmental issues, role of chemical profession in industrial,
Jeffrey L. Meikle (1995).
American Plastic: A Cultural History. (New Brunswick,
NJ: Rutgers University Press, 403 p.). Plastics--History.
Plastics industry and trade--United States--History.
A. Cressy Morrison (1937).
Man in a Chemical World; The Service of Chemical Industry.
(New York, NY: C. Scribner’s Sons, 292 p.). Chemistry,
Robert Snetsinger (1983).
The Ratcatcher’s Child: The History of the Pest Control Industry.
(Cleveland, OH: Franzak & Foster Co., 294 p.). Professor
Emeritus of Entomology (Penn State University). Pests --Control
Anthony S. Travis (1993).
The Rainbow Makers: The Origins of the Synthetic
Dyestuffs Industry in Western Europe.
(Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press, 335 p.). Deputy
Director of the Sidney M. Edelstein Center for the
History and Philosophy of Science, Technology and
Medicine (Hebrew University of Jerusalem), and of the
Jacques Loeb Centre for the History and Philosophy of
the Life Sciences (Ben Gurion University of the Negev).
Dye industry --Europe --History.
Eds. Anthony S. Travis (1998).
Determinants in the Evolution of the European Chemical
Industry, 1900-1936: New Technologies, Political
Frameworks, Markets, and Companies. (Boston, MA:
Kluwer, 393 p.). Chemical industry --Europe --History
--20th century. Ways in which chemical industry
developed throughout much of Europe prior to, during,
World War II (innovations based on
availability of raw materials, needs of new user
industries); emphasis on fertiliser production;
close examination of technologies (chemical engineering,
control of processes, research in industry);
mergers led to formation of IG Farben, Imperial
Chemical Industries (ICI);
dependendence on coal, coal tar products; strong moves
towards foundation of science-based biochemical
BBusiness History Links
American Chemical Society-ListServ
Largest collection of vintage plastics in Britain
Foundation (Othmer Library)
1982 - Center for
the History of Chemistry (CHOC) was launched as a pilot project
of the University of Pennsylvania and the American Chemical
Society (ACS). In 1984 the American Institute of Chemical
Engineers (AIChE) became the third sponsor. 1987 - Center
was incorporated as a not-for-profit organization, now named the
National Foundation for the History of Chemistry. 1992 -
Chemical Heritage Foundation (CHF) assumed its present name to
better reflect the interdisciplinary nature of the sciences and
industries it serves and the widening public scope of its
activities. CHF maintains a world-class collection of materials
that document the history and heritage of the chemical and
molecular sciences, technologies, and industries; encourages
research in CHF collections; and carries out a program of
outreach and interpretation in order to advance an understanding
of the role of the chemical and molecular sciences,
technologies, and industries in shaping society
Located at Pont Canavese, close to Turin, in northern Italy,
first Italian Museum of Plastics.
Housed inside a Sandretto plant (founded in 1946, leader
in design, manufacture, sale of machines for thermoplastic
museum holds one of richest collections of ancient artifacts of
plastic, celluloid by EBAN, casein, bakelite, materials of
Information about inventors, plastic materials, and companies
involved with the discovery and production of polymer materials.
Includes images of items made from materials such as celluloid,
casein, melamine, vulcanite, and xylonite. Also includes an
online museum "devoted to the story of viscose artificial silk
[rayon]." From the Plastics Historical Society, a British
society affiliated with the Institute of Materials, Minerals and